Stereotypic behaviour: repetitive and fixed behaviour without any apparent goal or function. Stereotypic behaviour is induced by frustration, repeated attempts to cope, and/or central nervous system dysfunction. Stereotypic behaviour occurs when there is a significant discrepancy between the conditions offered by captivity and an animal’s preferred and/or natural state (from Mason, 2006).
Mason, G. (2006). Stereotypic behaviour in captive animals: Fundamentals and implications for welfare and beyond. In G. Mason & J. Rushen (Eds.), Stereotypic animal behaviour: Fundamentals and applications to welfare (2nd ed., pp. 325–356). CABI. https://doi.org/10.1079/9780851990040.0325